“Biochemical and blood related test reports provide required information for diagnosis, screening, management, prognosis and monitoring of disease and its progression or suppression in response to treatment given to the patient”.
What is cardiac marker?
Cardiac markers are those parameters, which used to diagnose heart related problems by comparing with normal set standards physiological parameters.
Types of cardiac markers
- creatine kinase
- lactate dehydrogenase
Creatine kinase (C.K)
Creatine kinase is an enzyme which is found relatively in high concentration in our heart muscles, skeletal muscles and in brain, in addition to being found in smooth muscle and other tissues, levels are mainly increased following shock and circulatory failure, myocardial-infarction and Muscular-dystrophy.
This increases have been reported following muscle injury, surgery, physical exercise, muscle cramp and epileptic fits, intramuscular injection and hypothyroidism!
The most frequent side effect associated with statins are myopathy and an increase in hepatic transaminases.
Statin-associated myopathy represents a broad clinical spectrum of these orders from mild muscular pain and restriction in mobility with grossly elevated CK levels!!
A potentially life-threatening syndrome resulting from the breakdown of skeletal muscle fibre as a result of ischemic crush injury so that large quantities of CK are measurable in the blood!!
The levels of CK in the blood protecting the formation of acute renal failure,
Drugs and toxic-substances that increased the risk of Rhabdomyolysis are HMG-COA reductase inhibitors, cyclosporine, alcohol, cocaine, LSD and neuromuscular blocking agents etc
Sub-units of CK
CK has two protein sub-units i.e. M and B which combine to form isoenzyme that are; BB, MM and MB
Important sub-unit of CK and their origin
BB is found in high concentration in the brain, thyroid and some smooth muscle tissues, little of this enzyme is present in the serum even following damage to the brain.
The enzyme found in serum of normal subject is the MM isoenzyme which originates from skeletal muscle
Cardiac tissue contains more of the MB isoenzyme than skeletal muscle following a myocardial infarction is a characteristic increase in serum CK activity, all the measurement of activity of the MB isoenzymes was used in the past to detect myocardial-infarction.